Learnings from the 2nd wave of COVID

October 14, 2021 0 By Team FM

PSA plants could be the answer to battle Supply and Purity challenges in Medical Oxygen

Even as we come to terms with the aftermath of the COVID 19 pandemic and continue to face the uncertainty of a third wave; the tragedy and the lessons of the second wave in Apr-May are fresh in our minds. Among all the different things, an assured supply of oxygen was the key thing that could have helped prevent a lot of COVID related fatalities. According to government officials, the demand for medical oxygen in the country peaked to nearly 9,000 MT in the second COVID wave as compared to the maximum requirement of 3,095 MT during the first wave. During these waves, a lot of medical oxygen during the pandemic was created by converting industrial oxygen to medical standards. Hence, issues of purity, transport and consistent availability remained a challenge. To avoid this, hospitals and medical centres dealing with COVID patients, who traditionally used oxygen cylinders through contractual arrangements with suppliers, are now being urged by state governments to set up PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) Oxygen Plants ahead of a future crisis. 

PSA is a technology which separates oxygen from compressed air provided as an input to the system and filters out waste gases (mainly Nitrogen) to the atmosphere through an exhaust. The resulting oxygen is in a highly concentrated form, with purity levels up to 93%, and a high pressure of up to 6 bars — sufficient to run all life-saving equipment like ventilators & BiPAP machines. This also ensures a continuous, 24 hour oxygen supply. PSA Oxygen plants can supply Medical Oxygen at rates as low as 8LPM (litres per minute) upto 1,000 LPM and can hence cater to the requirements of individuals and large hospitals 

Let us understand the benefits of setting up a PSA Oxygen generator Vs Sourcing Medical Oxygen Cylinders from suppliers, and how purity and consistency are the key differentiators: 

Safer: PSA systems eliminate transportation risks and help maintain peak hour consumption.

Purity: With a guarantee of 93%+ 3% purity, the PSA technology helps achieve an excellent grade of medical oxygen that is generated at the venue, eliminating any chances of contamination, unlike in the case of oxygen in cylinders supplied from unorganized suppliers.

Volume losses/ wastage: It is a known fact that in oxygen cylinders, there is volume loss of 10% during the change-over due to pressure differences. There is no such volume loss with PSA systems, ensuring optimal use of all oxygen that is generated.

Manpower issues: Medical oxygen cylinders demand continuous manpower to monitor and change cylinder banks in rotating shifts. PSA systems are automated and do not require constant handling. 

Economical: Although the initial investment of PSA oxygen plants may seem to be high; in the long run, it is economical enough for even a small hospital to be able to recover the costs within 1 year of continuous usage.

Agile: PSA Oxygen systems allow an array of customisations that can help hospitals or users to modify operational output based on changing demand. 

Compact: Most of the PSA Oxygen systems need minimal space to install and don’t need any structural changes or rearrangement of the layout in the space where they are set up.

However, there are a few things that medical institutes need to keep in mind before purchasing a PSA Oxygen Plant. For instance, currently, there are a lot of local players who work as assemblers of PSA Oxygen plants. They get most of their spare parts from different places like China, USA and Europe, and are able to make a complete PSA Oxygen Plant in India. These assemblers will ensure that the product is supplied and installed at a hospital or medical institute. However, their service capability is always a question mark. Hence, it is always good to look for original manufacturers rather than assemblers. 

Medical institutions should also look at the internal compressors used in these plants. They should look at only those manufacturers which use oil-less compressors in their plants, which ensures that there is no possibility of oil vapours in the oxygen produced. This also results in minimal noise levels, which ensures that there is the least disturbance to the staff and patients.

Another factor that the hospitals should consider is the electricity consumption of these medical oxygen plants. There are a few PSA oxygen plants which consume less power and work on a single phase supply of 220V. This not only helps in cost savings in the long run, but also helps in better ROI. 

In conclusion, hospitals and COVID care centres can now be better prepared to ensure we do not face the same
problem of shortage of oxygen as we did in early 2021.  

Mark Mathew
The author is COO of NF Healthcare India