William C. Black et al reported continued benefit related to lung cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening on extended follow-up of participants in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). The 2011 NLST had reported a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in high-risk current and former smokers screened annually for 3 years with LDCT as compared to chest X-rays. The study involved 26,722 patients in the LDCT arm and 26,730 in the X-ray arm. The current follow-up estimated that a total of 303 persons need to be screened to prevent 1 death from lung cancer; compared to 320 persons to prevent 1 death from lung cancer reported in the 2011 study. The latest study extended the follow up to 6 years evaluating a total of 12.3 years for mortality. The researchers report that the extended follow-up allowed them to determine that LDCT did, in fact, prevent lung cancer death or at least delayed them for more than a decade. Overall mortality reported nearly 5,253 deaths in the LDCT group and 5,366 deaths in the chest X-ray arm. The study also reaffirms the findings from the NELSON trial, which found a 26% reduction in lung cancer mortality in men and a 39% reduction in women with the use of LDCT.
Source: Journal of Thoracic Oncology 28 June 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2019.05.044 https://www.jto.org/article/S1556-0864(19)30473-3/fulltext